Interestingly, the character for “body” is composed of that for “bone” on the left and that for “ritual vessel” on the right. • Mental restlessness These five are called Five Shen 五 神 or Five Zhi 五 志. The Nei Ye talks a lot about Jing as in the following passage: The vital essence [Jing 精] of all things: it is this that brings them to life. “to extend”. Shen [申] means “to extend”, “to stretch”. • Increased sexual drive The tamping iron entered on the side of his face passing back of the left eye, and out at the top of the head. ], [Ramachandran V.S., The Tell-Tale Brain, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 2011], SHEN AND HUN: THE PSYCHE IN CHINESE MEDICINE. The term “shen” is also used as a pole of the immaterial-material polarity. 4) The Heart of right-wrong is the sprout of wisdom (zhi 智). Therefore, we can say that the left part of “Shen” conveys the idea that the Shen is something spiritual, pertaining to Heaven, numinous, non-material (bearing in mind that we are talking about the Chinese and not a Christian concept of “Heaven”). It is lost inevitably because of sorrow, happiness, joy, anger, desire, and profit-seeking. This ability to wait for a reward is one of the key pieces that define optimal executive function of the human brain. interaction with others in family and society (the Hun has nothing to do with ethics and that is why it need the “control” of the Shen). The Shen of the Heart is also responsible for hearing, sight, taste and smell. There are three terms for “body”: In 1992 an Italian neurophysiologist in Parma was doing brain research using macaque monkeys. The location of certain acupuncture points on the forehead presents interesting observation as to the effect these points might have on the prefrontal cortex. SUAN ZAO REN: sour, sweet, astringent, promotes sleep, anchors Hun = stimulates contraction, i.e. Gage retained “full possession of his reason” after the accident, but his wife and other people close to him soon began to notice dramatic changes in his personality. This is based on classical texts and on Giovanni’s own thoughts and clinical experience. The “gentleman” [jun zi] gets his priorities right, while the small man gets them wrong. The Shen of the Heart is responsible for our identity of self as individuals. Thinking (or cognition) depends on the Shen. 示 The “shi” on the left side of “Shen”. As we shall see below, these are functions of the pre-frontal cortex. There is now a mirror neuron hypothesis in relation to autism. The PFC also influences social “control” (the ability to suppress urges that, if not suppressed, could lead to socially-unacceptable outcomes). “People detected that something was wrong very quickly. It is for this reason that all emotions eventually affect the Heart (in addition to other specific organs), and it is for this reason that the tip of the tongue becomes red in emotional problems from whatever emotion. The Hun moves upwards towards the Shen and its movement gives the Shen the capacity to extend and project outwards. The brain area connecting mirror neurons to the limbic system (responsible for our emotions) is the insula. SHEN 身 (body, life, oneself, personally, one’s moral character and conduct) (the original script depicted a pregnant woman) • Obsessive thoughts There are some connections between the Hun, Shen and Yi and the Jungian anima and animus. moral disgust when observing immoral, unethical or criminal behaviour. Moreover, the researchers found that this activation was very fast. He thinks that this translation is preferable to “spirit” to avoid confusion with Western views of “spirit”. All the forms of the mind are naturally infused and filled with it [the vital essence], Thus, “our mirror neurons fire when we see others expressing their emotions, as if we were making those facial expressions ourselves. It also gives the Shen “movement” in the sense that it allows the Shen the capacity of insight and introspection as well as the ability to project outwards and relate to other people. Meng Zi introduced his own version of this philosophy producing a moral version of the Heart and Qi. I believe that the anima may be related to the Hun and the animus to Shen and Yi. • Laughing a lot ], It is interesting to note the similarity between the character for "body" that has a ritual vessel on the right and a bone on the left, with that for "rites" which has a ritual vessel on the right and "shi" on the left, the same "shi" that is on the left of th, [Yanhua Zhang, Transforming Emotions with Chinese Medicine, State University of New York Press, NY, 2007. Please note that the Daoist “negation of the self” could not be further removed from the Christian negation and punishment of the self and body. They think, probably rightly, that these became the sign for deity from superstitious dread of lightning. • Is responsible for perceptions, feelings and senses (with Po) And you can maintain the One and discard the myriad disturbances. When you enlarge your mind [xin 心] and let go of it, If the Heart-Mind [Xin] holds the Way [Dao], then the 9 orifices will follow their natural pattern. The Heart and human nature (性) in Confucian philosophy. Let us look first at the left side which gives the character its meaning. It is frequently combined with G.B.-13 Benshen for severe anxiety and fears. The following diagrams illustrate this concept of cycles of expansion and contraction in our psyche. the Shen itself, the Hun, the Po, the Yi and the Zhi. For example, anger affects the Liver, but the Liver cannot feel it because it does not house the Shen. The myriad things will all be contained within you. These “spirits” are the powers that descended into early Chinese shamans and shamanesses during their ritualized trances. And its vital essence [Jing] will naturally stabilize. our thinking about moral duties, priorities, the purpose and destiny of man. Also “The substance of Mind is nature (xing) and nature is the same as Principle. The gui in the character hun for the “Hun” has also another important meaning. Negative expressions that occur in conjunction with wo 我 are wu 無 (nothing), shi 失 (to lose), sang 丧 (to lose), xu 虚 (void, empty) and qu 去 (to remove). Diagnosis in Chinese Medicine – 2nd Edition, Diagnosis in Chinese Medicine – 1st Edition, The Energetics and Treatment of Body Areas, The Foundations of Chinese Medicine – 3rd Edition, The Foundations of Chinese Medicine – 2nd Edition, The Foundations of Chinese Medicine – 1st Edition, Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Chinese Medicine, The Practice of Chinese Medicine – 2nd Edition, The Practice of Chinese Medicine – 1st Edition, Shen and Hun: The Psyche in Chinese Medicine, TCM: Yin Deficiency and Empty Heat in Chinese Medicine. = SHEN, [Edelman G and Tononi G, A Universe of Consciousness, Basic Books, NY, 2000, pp. Meng Zi also calls it the “true heart”. Zhang Jie Bin in the “Classic of Categories” says: “The Shen and the Hun are Yang…the Hun follows the Shen, if the Shen is unconscious the Hun is swept away”. Old form was 體 (bone on the left and vessel on the right). 申 means “to state”, “to express”, “to extend” 伸 means “to stretch”, “to extend”. 52.]. Hun is the “gui”, i.e. I translate this as “Spirit”. Quiet simply, mirror neurons differentiate between the same action associated with different intentions. Primary consciousness – the ability to generate a mental scene in which a large amount of diverse information is integrated for the purpose of directing present or immediate behaviour – occurs in animals with brain structures similar to ours.