The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. The ‘type species’ is Acetobacter aceti that is used widely as a commercial starter in vinegar production. Swings, “Genus I, G. S. Drysdale and G. H. Fleet, “Acetic acid bacteria in winemaking: a review,”, V. Millet and A. Lonvaud-Funel, “The viable but non-culturable state of wine micro-organisms during storage,”, M. J. Torija, E. Mateo, J. M. Guillamón, and A. Mas, “Identification and quantification of acetic acid bacteria in wine and vinegar by TaqMan-MGB probes,”, Y. Yamada, P. Yukpan, H. T. L. Vu et al., “Description of, Y. Yamada, K.-I. Vinegar, Palm Wine, Acetobacter Aceti, Rotten Banana, Acetobacter Orleanensis Nigeria. IEEE Format: The mean viable count of the bacterial isolates was 0.72 x 10 2 cfu/g. Freshly-tapped oil-palm wine was allowed to ferment for seven days at 30℃. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either “fast” or “traditional”), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Hoshino, and T. Ishikawa, “The phylogeny of acetic acid bacteria based on the partial sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA: the elevation of the subgenus, A. Ruiz, M. Poblet, A. Mas, and J. M. Guillamón, “Identification of acetic acid bacteria by RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer,”, Á. González and A. Mas, “Differentiation of acetic acid bacteria based on sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer sequences,”, Á. González, N. Hierro, M. Poblet, N. Rozès, A. Mas, and J. M. Guillamón, “Application of molecular methods for the differentiation of acetic acid bacteria in a red wine fermentation,”, C. Hidalgo, E. Mateo, A. Mas, and M. J. Torija, “Identification of yeast and acetic acid bacteria isolated from the fermentation andacetification of persimmon (Diospyros kaki),”, I. Lopez, F. Ruiz-Larrea, L. Cocolin et al., “Design and evaluation of PCR primers for analysis of bacterial populations in wine by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,”, L. de Vero, E. Gala, M. Gullo, L. Solieri, S. Landi, and P. Giudici, “Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis to evaluate acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar,”, C. Ilabaca, P. Navarrete, P. Mardones, J. Romero, and A. Mas, “Application of culture culture-independent molecular biology based methods to evaluate acetic acid bacteria diversity during vinegar processing,”, I. Andorrà, S. Landi, A. Mas, J. M. Guillamón, and B. Esteve-Zarzoso, “Effect of oenological practices on microbial populations using culture-independent techniques,”, Á. González, N. Hierro, M. Poblet, A. Mas, and J. M. Guillamón, “Enumeration and detection of acetic acid bacteria by real-time PCR and nested PCR,”, C. Jara, E. Mateo, J.-M. Guillamón, A. Mas, and M. J. Torija, “Analysis of acetic acid bacteria by different culture-independent techniques in a controlled superficial acetification,”, C. Vegas, A. Gonzalez, E. Mateo, A. Mas, M. Poblet, and M. J. Torija, “Evaluation of representativity of the acetic acid bacteria species identified by culture-dependent method during a traditional wine vinegar production,”, C. Vegas, E. Mateo, Á. González et al., “Population dynamics of acetic acid bacteria during traditional wine vinegar production,”, C. Hidalgo, E. Mateo, A. Mas, and M. J. Torija, “Effect of inoculation on strawberry fermentation and acetification processes using native strains of yeast and acetic acid bacteria,”, M. Gullo, L. de Vero, and P. Giudici, “Succession of selected strains of, C. Hidalgo, C. Vegas, E. Mateo et al., “Effect of barrel design and the inoculation of, R. M. Callejón, M. J. Torija, A. Mas, M. L. Morales, and A. M. Troncoso, “Changes of volatile compounds in wine vinegars during their elaboration in barrels made from different woods,”, R. M. Callejón, M. L. Morales, A. C. Silva Ferreira, and A. M. Troncoso, “Defining the typical aroma of Sherry vinegar: sensory and chemical approach,”, M. C. García-Parrilla, F. J. Heredia, and A. M. Troncoso, “The influence of the acetification process on the phenolic composition of wine vinegars,”, M. L. Morales, W. Tesfaye, M. C. García-Parrilla, J.