[188], Zinc has been recognized as a messenger, able to activate signalling pathways. [12][119] Another alloy, marketed under the brand name Prestal, contains 78% zinc and 22% aluminium, and is reported to be nearly as strong as steel but as malleable as plastic. In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%, low-affinity) and transferrin (10%). It is a dense substance, with an average density of 7.14 g/cm^3. [152], Zinc is an inexpensive and effective part of treatment of diarrhea among children in the developing world. Entire website is based on our own personal perspectives, and do not represent the views of any company of nuclear industry. [60] Zinc in such remnants in smelting ovens was usually discarded as it was thought to be worthless. Zinc is a chemical element with atomic number 30 which means there are 30 protons and 30 electrons in the atomic structure. All Rights Reserved. [222] Major plant sources of zinc include cooked dried beans, sea vegetables, fortified cereals, soy foods, nuts, peas, and seeds. [99] Plants that grow in soils that are zinc-deficient are more susceptible to disease. [87], Zinc is the fourth most common metal in use, trailing only iron, aluminium, and copper with an annual production of about 13 million tonnes. [68] In his 1746 experiment, Marggraf heated a mixture of calamine and charcoal in a closed vessel without copper to obtain a metal. [93] The ore is finely ground, then put through froth flotation to separate minerals from gangue (on the property of hydrophobicity), to get a zinc sulfide ore concentrate[93] consisting of about 50% zinc, 32% sulfur, 13% iron, and 5% SiO2. [72] Yet another possibility is that the word is derived from the Persian word سنگ seng meaning stone. Zinc becomes depleted in the body during diarrhea and replenishing zinc with a 10- to 14-day course of treatment can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes and may also prevent future episodes for as long as three months. Most zinc is in the brain, muscle, bones, kidney, and liver, with the highest concentrations in the prostate and parts of the eye. [97], Refinement of sulfidic zinc ores produces large volumes of sulfur dioxide and cadmium vapor. Judean brass from the 14th to 10th centuries BC contains 23% zinc. [169][183] Zinc homeostasis also plays a critical role in the functional regulation of the central nervous system.  Comments A meta-analysis of 33 prospective intervention trials regarding zinc supplementation and its effects on the growth of children in many countries showed that zinc supplementation alone had a statistically significant effect on linear growth and body weight gain, indicating that other deficiencies that may have been present were not responsible for growth retardation. [100] Effective sewage treatment greatly reduces this; treatment along the Rhine, for example, has decreased zinc levels to 50 ppb. For the same reason, zinc has been proposed as a salting material for nuclear weapons (cobalt is another, better-known salting material). [125] When behind an absorbing mask, the CZT sensor array can determine the direction of the rays. [217] While zinc deficiency is usually due to insufficient dietary intake, it can be associated with malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica, chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, sickle cell disease, diabetes, malignancy, and other chronic illnesses. [190] The transcription factor wraps around the DNA helix and uses its fingers to accurately bind to the DNA sequence. [204] These considerations must be balanced against the paucity of adequate zinc biomarkers, and the most widely used indicator, plasma zinc, has poor sensitivity and specificity. Our Website follows all legal requirements to protect your privacy. For example, cathodic protection of a buried pipeline can be achieved by connecting anodes made from zinc to the pipe. A similar antagonism exists with copper. [107] Zinc acts as the anode (negative terminus) by slowly corroding away as it passes electric current to the steel pipeline. The FDA said the loss of smell can be life-threatening because people with impaired smell cannot detect leaking gas or smoke, and cannot tell if food has spoiled before they eat it. [109][110] Zinc is used as the anode or fuel of the zinc-air battery/fuel cell. [10] Some evidence suggests that more than the US RDA (8 mg/day for adult women; 11 mg/day for adult men) may be needed in those whose diet is high in phytates, such as some vegetarians.    Rare Earth Elements, Basic Information | Atomic Structure | Isotopes | Related Links | Citing This Page. [55][56], The manufacture of brass was known to the Romans by about 30 BC. As for safety, the IOM sets Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. [74] Libavius described the properties of the sample, which may have been zinc. [54], The oldest known pills were made of the zinc carbonates hydrozincite and smithsonite. [235][236], Pennies and other small coins are sometimes ingested by dogs, requiring veterinary removal of the foreign objects. [118] An example of this is zinc aluminium. [159] The use of zinc in the treatment of anorexia has been advocated since 1979. [99][170], In proteins, zinc ions are often coordinated to the amino acid side chains of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine and histidine.    Atomic Number [177] Semen is particularly rich in zinc, a key factor in prostate gland function and reproductive organ growth. [227], The free zinc ion is a powerful Lewis acid up to the point of being corrosive. Group: 12: Melting point: 419.527°C, 787.149°F, 692.677 K : Period: 4: Boiling point: 907°C, 1665°F, 1180 K : Block: d: Density (g cm −3) ... 22430: ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database: What is Zinc? p. 46, Ancient mining and metallurgy in Rajasthan, S. M. Gandhi, chapter 2 in, E. Frankland, B. F. Duppa, Ann. Symbol: Zn. [136] A jacket of isotopically enriched 64Zn would be irradiated by the intense high-energy neutron flux from an exploding thermonuclear weapon, forming a large amount of 65Zn significantly increasing the radioactivity of the weapon's fallout. For other uses, see. ... Zinc: 65.38: The Molecular mass of an element can be calculated by adding the atomic masses of each of its constituents.