(See my ‘Supervenience: The Grand-Property Hypothesis’,Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 66 (1986), 1–12.). endstream << /Length 12 0 R /N 1 /Alternate /DeviceGray /Filter /FlateDecode >> 7. endobj Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, https://doi.org/10.1111/b.9780631201199.1999.00006.x. %��������� and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Thus on Lewis' theory (David Lewis,Counterfactuals, Blackwell, 1973) the nearest world(s) with God to the nearest world(s) without God to our world, here assumed to be with God, need not (all) be our world. If we allow that some duties areimperfect, the definitions do not coincide. For example, the theory that the Divine Command Theory holds except for the wrongness of inflicting pain for the fun of it, for which Utilitarianism holds. Different benevolent people will manifest their human weakness in different ways. Baron is using ‘supererogation’ to apply to acts beyondany requirement of duty, perfect or imperfect. In other words, “what is in accordance with God’s command is moral and what is contrary to that command is immoral” (Farnell, 2005). The second is that I am considering the sort of a realist about properties for whom the identity of two properties is not just the necessary co-extension of their extensions. However, I take this to be a conversational implication rather than an entailment. 11 0 obj Derived from Plato's dialogueEuthryphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro whether what is loved by the gods is loved because it is holy or holy because it is loved. One standard proposal is to insist that while, strictly speaking, anything less than an act of maximal moral value is wrong, we should not censure such acts in all cases. �)����vuY�m[�Ңgߺ��3ӛ�5œ]�. Here I note three points: The first is that, as an alternative, we could identifybeing right withbeing permitted by God. Gene Outka and John P. Reeder, Jr., Anchor Books, 1973. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share the view that the Hebrew Bible has authority in matters of religion. It also follows that no act is right, if you take the Divine Command Theory as saying that an act's rightness is constituted by its being permitted by God. These do not collapse to indicative conditionals. Apart, of course, from the facts, if these are facts, about which acts are right and which wrong. That is because there are variousuntenable alternatives to the Divine Command Theory which satisfy all four premisses. The occurrence of moral dilemmas has often been taken to provide an argument against Moral Realism. - 66.198.240.53. Divine command theory is the belief that things are right because God commands them to be. R.M. 1. x�ROHQ��6��A�x�w by C.F. Both Exodus 20:1–17 and Deuteronomy 5:6–21, which recount the revelation of the Decalogue, portray God as instructing the Chosen People about what they are to do and not to do by commanding them. So, of course, the argument is notdeductively valid. %PDF-1.3 Divine command theory is an ethical view based on theism or the belief that God exists. This may not be obvious. stream One might, of course, understand these divine commands as merely God's endorsement of a moral code whose authority is independent of the commands. Peter Forrest. But I am restricting my attention to otherwise tenable theories. For a discussion of some of the objections see mySupervenience: The Grand-Property Hypothesis. �0��+��l���׽�,��Ii+�oq��0���L�0��%��2�{����[@X�a �+���*T�G�.Z�����_>�x}>W>����jM)Q�֢Uo8].e-Zp-`�#թ���?|��������纲7l�ݽ ��:8 Perhaps the most important such challenge arises in the Platonic dialogue which we read for class today. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Thus we need to consider nested counterfactuals, of the form: ‘If God were not to exist, then if She/He were to exist, ...’. Working off-campus? We can avoid Moral Perfectionism on this account bynot ignoring weakness of will. Otherwise this version of Consequentialism becomes incoherent. Such comparisons are action-guiding. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. For a discussion of Kant's concept of an imperfect duty see Marion Baron, ‘Kantian Ethics and Supererogation’,The Journal of Philosophy, 84 (1987), 237–262. But divine command theory also faces some significant challenges. Subscription will auto renew annually. A Divine Command Theory of Ethics is sometimes rejected on the grounds that such a theory is incompatible with human moral autonomy. When I refer to God as ‘She/He’ I do not mean ‘She or He’. Adams, “Moral Arguments for Theistic Belief”Rationality and Religious Belief, ed. Forrest, P. An argument for the Divine Command Theory of Right Action. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. endobj Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. But in that case, there will often be no fact of the matter as to what a benevolent person will do. Philosophy Department, University of New England, Australia, You can also search for this author in Robert Adams, ‘Existence, Self Interest and the Problem of Evil’,Noûs 13 (1979), 53–65. And Her/His choice may be due to other motives, such as aesthetic ones, or a sense of humour. Both Exodus 20:1–17 and Deuteronomy 5:6–21, which recount the revelation of the Decalogue, portray God as instructing the Chosen People about what they are to do and not to do by commanding them. For example, the theory that the Divine Command Theory holds except for the wrongness of inflicting pain for the fun of it, for which Utilitarianism holds. God is, I take it, figuratively Sheand He, and literallyneither Shenor He. For a discussion of this issue see, Philippa Foot, ‘Moral Realism and Moral Dilemma’,The Journal of Philosophy, 80 (1983), 379–98. But it seems natural enough to suppose that the authority of the Decalogue depends in some manner on the fact it is divinely commanded or the fact that the commands express God's will. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. This is only one possible sense of supererogation. But I am restricting my attention to otherwise tenable theories. Part of Springer Nature. 5 0 obj To love is, at least in part, to will what is intrinsically good for the beloved precisely because it is intrinsically good for the beloved. For God may well choose one plan from a number without that plan being either better or worse than the others. They therefore have reasons for sympathy with a divine command conception of morality. Can we compare, to take a well-known example, a lesser good for many with a greater good for a few? A long tradition of theological voluntarism in moral theory has evolved from this natural starting point. Another is to say that a work of supererogation is one beyond the requirements of duty. Correspondence to The third is that I myself would takebeing right to be a property of properties of acts rather than a property. They therefore have reasons for sympathy with a divine command conception of morality. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. It if were, then this would collapse to a thesis about what is necessarily the case. So we would do well to have a label for this class of views that does not prejudge the issue of the relevant act of divine will. Sophia This is recognised as a difficulty for Utilitarianism. I am grateful to Barry Miller, of the University of New England, and Dan Skubik of the Australian National University for helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper. Divine command theory. Learn about our remote access options. Here I assume that there is a finite sum to the numerical values.