The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy and part of the Holy Roman Empire. After their defeat in the Battle of Marignano in 1515, the Swiss retired from Milan and Massimiliano was imprisoned by the returning French troops. But by then, his luck seemed to have run out. Ludovico returned with an army of mercenaries and re-entered Milan in February 1500. With French armies near Pavia, Ludovico and his loyalists left Milan on 17 September 1499 to flee toward Germany. This was accepted by Britain and the Dutch Republic among others but disputes over division of territories and commercial rights led to the War of the Spanish Succession in 1701.[23]. "Sforza". The child was legitimized and later married to Galeazzo da Sanseverino in 1496. The Duke of Milan serves as a means of conveyance for voyages. [22] When Charles died on 1 November 1700, the throne was offered to Philip, who was proclaimed King of Spain on 16 November 1700. Instead, its former territory became part of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, with the Emperor of Austria as its king. Louis XII refused to see him and, despite the pleas of the Emperor Maximilian, would not release him. In 1504 he was moved to the castle of Loches where he was given even more freedom. Former duchy in Italy (1395–1447; 1450–1535), harvp error: no target: CITEREFBueno1941 (. [11] In 1450 mercenary captain Francesco Sforza, having previously married Filippo Maria Visconti's illegitimate daughter Bianca Maria, conquered the city and restored the Duchy, founding the House of Sforza. Until 1259, Milan was a free commune that elected its own podestà. [1] After Pagano's death, Baldo Ghiringhelli was elected podestà in 1259, but at the end of his tenure Martino della Torre, Pagano's nephew, perpetrated a coup d'état, seizing of power of his family over the commune, establishing the first Signoria (Italian for "Lordship") of Milan. The House of Visconti had been expanding their dominions for nearly a century, under the reigns of Azzone Visconti, Luchino Visconti, Giovanni Visconti, Bernabò Visconti and Gian Galeazzo Visconti: during the rule of Azzone Visconti, the Ossola in Piedmont had been conquered in 1331, followed by Bergamo and Pavia (Lombardy) and Novara (Piedmont) in 1332, Pontremoli (Tuscany) in 1333, Vercelli (Piedmont) and Cremona (Lombardy) in 1334, the Lombard cities of Como, Crema, Lodi and the Valtellina in 1335, Bormio (Lombardy) and Piacenza (Emilia) in 1336, and Brescia and the Val Camonica in 1337.[10]. After the fall of Milan, he was crowned King of Italy in the city's Cathedral.[8]. The Duchy was created in 1395 by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, then the Lord of Milan, and a member of the important Visconti family, that had been ruling the city since 1277. [2], During their tenure, the Torriani family, aligned with French Charles of Anjou, started a strong rivality with Visconti family, loyal to the German Hohenstaufen. The duchy was ceded by Austria in the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, and formed the central part of the new Cisalpine Republic. ", This page was last edited on 2 November 2020, at 01:03. [1][2], At that time, it included twenty-six towns and the wide rural area of the middle Padan Plain east of the hills of Montferrat. In 1494, the new king of Naples, Alfonso II, allied himself with Pope Alexander VI, posing a threat to Milan. [citation needed]. [5], Ludovico invested in agriculture, horse and cattle breeding, and the metal industry. This resulted quickly in his own expulsion from Milan by imperial forces, but he managed to remain in control of various other cities in the duchy, and was again restored to Milan itself by the peace concluded at Cambrai in 1529. Godfrey, F. M., "The Eagle and the Viper", "Ludovico il Moro e Beatrice d'Este", Palio di Mortara, "Ludovico Sforza Moro", Biografia y Vidas, Leonardo's Itinerary: Early maturity in Milan (1482–1499),, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Godfrey, F. M. "The Eagle and the Viper: Lodovico Il Moro of Milan: A Renaissance Tyrant. In 1494, the new king of Naples, Alfonso II, allied himself with Pope Alexander VI, posing a threat to Milan. The duke was apprehended by the French. More recent historians, however, placing the figure of Ludovico in its Renaissance setting, have reevaluated his merits as a ruler and given a more equitable assessment of his achievement.[9]. Turmann was immediately arrested for treason, and on the following day he was executed by decapitation.[8]. Fliss, willing to charge to pay the bills she … However, Charles's ambition was not satisfied with Naples, and he subsequently laid claim to Milan itself. Ludovico was inconsolable, and the entire court was shrouded in gloom. The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from a part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered on the city of Parma.