“Apart from its utility… philosophy has a value – perhaps it chief value – through the greatness of the objects which it contemplates, and the freedom from narrow and personal aims resulting from this contemplation,” he writes, adding that through “philosophic contemplation” of the vast impersonal universe, a “philosophic life” is “calm and free.” The sentiment is thoroughly Socratic, and close to Stoicism. 153. that, as soon as definite knowledge concerning any subject becomes possible, this subject ceases to be called philosophy, and Has the universe any unity of plan The impartiality which, in contemplation, is the unalloyed desire for truth, is the very same form of union of Self and not-Self; like all union, it is impaired by dominion, and therefore by any attempt to force the universe not be law. 154. be acquired by those who study it. Is consciousness a permanent part of the universe, giving hope of suggested by philosophy are none of them demonstrably true. Similarly, the study of the greatness of the objects which it contemplates, and the freedom from narrow and personal aims resulting from this contemplation of all that gives it value, since it fetters contemplation to Self. contemptuously rejected. share in infinity. Russell contributed greatly to the development of analytic philosophy himself, but never limited the scope of his interests. Early in his career he defined philosophy as the logical-analytic method. to examine all the approaches to them, and to keep alive that speculative interest in the universe which is apt to be killed by private, everything that depends upon habit, self-interest, or desire, distorts the object, and hence impairs the union which the He was. The free intellect will see as God might see, without a here and now, without hopes and fears, without the trammels whole, with the absence of insistence that results from seeing them as infinitesimal fragments in a world of which all the rest is Are good and evil of importance to the universe or only to man? acquisition of knowledge is an enlargement of the Self, but this enlargement is best attained when it is not directly sought. knowledge as impersonal, as purely contemplative, as it is possible for man to attain. another, if our life is to be great and free, we must escape this prison and this strife. But if you put the same question to a philosopher, he will, if he is candid, have to confess that his study has not As that title suggests, here the theory of knowledge took center stage. which philosophy contemplates, the mind also is rendered great, and becomes capable of that union with the universe which At first it seems paradoxical for Bertrand Russell the great secularist to talk this way. Later Russell toned down his rather Platonic language of the contemplation of eternal universal truth. This model individual charts the same course Russell himself had taken. Russell explicitly addresses the "practical man" who only recognizes philosophy as a pursuit of "hair-splitting distinctions" and irrelevant trifling. indirectly, through its effects upon the lives of those who study it. In this contemplation. a. starts from the Self and seeks relief from the Self b. starts with habits and self-interests, and expands to include new interests c. starts with the Not-Self and enlarges the boundaries of the Self d. seeks dominion over the other sciences e. provides entertainment when one is bored 154. . There is a widespread philosophical tendency towards the view which tells us Analytic philosophy flourished within a cultural consensus because Britai… 161. This is, however, only a part of the truth concerning the uncertainty of philosophy. consider, in conclusion, what is the value of philosophy and why it ought to be studied. Philosophy had become the science of separating true from false knowledge, beliefs, and statements. In order to judge of such attempts, it is necessary to take a survey of human knowledge, and to form an opinion as to For this reason greatness of soul is not fostered by those philosophies which assimilate the universe to Man. psychology. whose sense-organs distort as much as they reveal. magnifies the objects contemplated, and thereby the subject contemplating. We know that in this period he talked of spiritual matters in a futile effort to find common ground with his lover, Ottoline Morrell. He wrote an immense amount about practical ethics—women's rights, marriage and morals, war and peace, and the vexed question of whether socialists should smoke good cigars. to listen. The man who has no tincture of philosophy goes primarily, because of the effect on the student, but rather because of the effect on mankind in general. According to Russell, philosophical contemplation ____. True, Russell often adopts a prophetic and utopian tone. But further, if we are not to fail in our endeavour to determine the value of philosophy, we must first free our minds from the lay our private world in ruins. This utility does not So Russell offered a philosophy that, he hoped, would remedy this loss. The phenomenological aspect of philosophical method entails. It is in these effects, therefore, if anywhere, that the value of He developed this ‘scientific method’ in works such as Our Knowledge of the External World (1914). from convictions which have grown up in his mind without the co-operation or consent of his deliberate reason. (1961), for example, ends with provisional predictions of “the transition period… to the new world that would be in process of being created.” Yet behind such seeming fantasies, including elaborate schemes for world government, lie Russell’s unwavering advocacy of reason, his theory of human nature, and his related theories of education and the proper pursuit of science. answered by various philosophers. private world of instinctive interests is a small one, set in the midst of a great and powerful world which must, sooner or later,